In history the Kickapoo, who have a close ethnic and linguistic connection with the Sauk and Foxes, first appeared about the middle of the seventeenth century between Fox and Wisconsin rivers in Wisconsin. After taking part in the destruction of the Illinois Confederacy about 1765, they moved southward, establishing headquarters at the site of Peoria, Illinois. Gradually extending their range, a portion, centering around Sangamon river, became known as the Prairie Band, while a part, ranging east to the Wabash river, were designated the Vermilion Band. This tribe with other Mississippi Valley peoples took a prominent part in the Tecumseh uprising in 1811 and the Black Hawk War of 1832. In 1809 they ceded their lands on Wabash and Vermilion rivers, and ten years later all their claims in central Illinois, and were removed to Missouri and thence to Kansas. About 1852 a large party of Kickapoo, together with some Potawatomi, went to Texas and to Mexico where in 1863 they were joined by other dissatisfied Kickapoo. These caused so much annoyance to the border settlements that about half the tribe were induced to settle in Indian Territory in 1873. The lands of the Kickapoo were allotted in severalty and the surplus opened to settlement in 1895. Since then most of them have moved to Chihuahua and joined the so-called Mexican Kickapoo.
1895, May 3. Kickapoo lands opened.
The smallest and LAST land run in Oklahoma was the Kickapoo opening. Of 206,080 acres in the reservation, 22,640 acres were allotted to the Kickapoos in 283 selections of 80 acres each by March 27, 1895. Some of the remaining 183,440 acres purchased by the federal government were set aside as School Land and the rest was opened to settlers in a land run. The Kickapoo lands were then added toLincoln, Oklahoma and Pottawatomie Counties.
Kickapoo History Comprehensive treatment of the early days.
The Kickapoo Indians Mostly about the band that went to Mexico and remained along the Mexico-Texas border.
1900 Census Oklahoma Territory, Lincoln County, Kickapoo Township: Kickapoo Supervisor's District No. 219; Enumeration District No.: 122 Name of Institution: Mexican Kickapoo Mission
Treaty of June 28, 1862
Signed by Pascal Pensioneau as US Interpreter and his son,
Stephen Pensioneau, Ken-ne-Kuk as chief or headman of the Kickapoos.
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